Native-born 9 17 39 Foreign-born 9 20 39 Native-born 0 4 63 Foreign-born 12 25 46 Native-born 1 9 64 Foreign-born 9 17 38 Native-born - 17 47 Foreign-born 22 20 30 Native-born 6 19 45 Foreign-born 15 17 45 Native-born 5 18 44 Foreign-born 10 10 47 Native-born 1 10 57 Foreign-born 17 12 35 Native-born 1 6 50 Foreign-born 5 26 32 Non-OECD 7 34 32 Native-born - 19 44 Foreign-born 12 19 39 Native-born 3 13 52 Data refer to the unweighted average. How much of the differences in the labour market outcomes between the native- and foreign-born.
Figure 7 shows that if the. Percentage points differences in empl oyment rates between native- and foreign-born. Di ffe rence b etwee n the employm ent r ate s of native -a nd f ore ig n-. Exp ecte d dif ferenc e between e mpl oyme nt rate s of na tive-a nd. Table 4 shows the differences in employment rat es by education level between immigrants and. For most countr i es, the gaps are lower for the low-educated than for the high-educated —.
T here are only few ex ceptions to the general pattern —. Denmark for women, and Norway and the Netherlands for both genders. This suggests that Norway has a. B ecause of its im portance in the context of t he. Norwegian labour market, t his issue will be analysed more closely in the ne xt section. Percentage points differences in th e emplo yment rate between native a nd foreign-born,. Data refer to the unw eighted average. The labour market outcom es of highly-skilled migra nts and the recognition of foreign qualifications.
This is among the highest shares in the comparison group. The qualific ations of. The avail able more recent data comes from the. Survey of Living Conditions of the nine most impor tant origin country g roups of migration from non-. Among the high -qualified from this g r oup, about half hav e. Among the current migrant population who were already resident i n ,. Turkey, had a Norwegian d egree. The overall labour m arket outcomes for highly -qualified foreign-born in international com parison.
Alm ost two-thirds of the h ighly -qualified foreign-born are also in a job that can be. Only in Sw itzerland is a larger share of immigrants in highly-skille d. Although the respective share for migrants from outs ide of the EU is lower, the picture. Labour market outcomes of highly-educated population in select ed OECD countries,. Non EU27 57 23 - - Sweden foreign-born 53 20 3 8 United States foreign-born 53 21 6 2 Data do not neces sary add up to d ue to the reliabi lity thresh old.
Percentage of highly -educated working in:. Supplement for the Unit ed States. For the pur poses of. Further analysis with pooled data from the I nternational Adult Literacy and the Adul t Literacy. About one third of the difference in employment probabili ties for this grou p compared with. This appe ars to be less than in the OECD on. In contrast to what is. Percentage point differences in th e probability of being in highly-skilled employment for highly-skilled.
Observations 21 14 21 14 3 All regressions include a c onstant and co ntrol for age, gender and survey year. The regressions for the OE CD. Ireland, Belgium, S weden, United Kingdom,. Data on t he origin of education are not available in t he. Non-significant values are shaded. The f igures show. They correspond to marginal eff ects. Norwegian educa tion thus seems to be much higher valued i n the Norwegian labour market than.
This als o holds with respect to wages, although there is some uncer tainty whether or not. Native-born perso ns have a return of.
This return is even exceeded by immigrants who have obtained all of their. All groups hav e roughly the sam e returns to experience. Since immigrants start from a lower. For this group, earnings w ill tend to converge to, and eventually exceed, those of the na tive-born. The procedure for the recognit i on of foreign qualifica tions. Prior to this date, formal reco gnition did not exist in Norway — only non-binding. There has been a clear upward trend in recogni tion requests in recent years, and a. Immigrants f rom Iraq, who are a numerous and rather quali fied migrant group, can currently.
T aking the qualification.
The process takes on average weeks after the full app l ication material is receiv ed and is. Inform ation is provided in ten languages. The outcom e is a number of ECTS. In general, the decision is based on the years of formal educa tion. The decis ions are binding for public employment regarding qualifica tions. They could in principle also be used in anti- discrimination court cases, but. There has been no assessment of the im pact of the recognition procedure on the labour mark et. However, all th ree do not do as well.
Sim ilar results have been observed for Aus tralia. NOKUT gives only general recognition regarding the degree lev e l e.
This is done free of charge at the universities, and there is no. Indeed, univ ersities currently. If anything, universities face n egative incentives. For regulated professions, the respective profes sional bodies are in charge. When the rig ht to upper seconda ry education for adults was implemented in , a right to a so-. The assessment is ta rgeted at individuals who do not. A priori one would expect that imm igrants from. Commission to provide common procedures for the academic recognition of studies abroad.
Native Norwegians 31 13 Total 39 16 Data provided by the Ministry of Labour and Social Inclusion. The convergence of labour market outcomes over time and the composition of t he immigrant population. The convergence con cept of integration, introduced by Chiswick , sugg ests that gradually,. The overall picture with respect to the outc omes for recent arrival s compared with those who. Note that these results are not based on lo ngitudinal data following people over tim e, but cross-.
For m ost countries, the pattern is. This does not appear to be the case in Norway. For m en, on the aggregate level there is virt ually. For women, register data. One reason for the rather unusual picture for men appears to be tha t the composition of the. According to register data,. This is only the case fo r eight percent of the migrants with six to te n years of. Annex C shows the.
Labour m arket outcomes tend to be b est. For family mig rants and. Resettled refu gees generally have the least favourable outcom es, and these have accounted for. Percentage points gaps in the emplo yment rate of immigrants compared with the native-born.
Rates of native-born minus rates of foreign-born. Up to five years Six to ten years More than ten years. Labour force su rvey data. Labour force s urvey data Register da ta. Data on labour m arket outcomes of immigrants by migration cat egory over time is only available. Table 8 compares Norway with the Nethe rlands, albeit for different time.
As can be seen, the labour market outcom es. Employment rates by migration categor y in Norway and the Netherlands,. One year Three years One year Three years. The employment rates of family migrants from the Netherlands are calculated as the average of the rates for family reunificat ion. Data on the evolution of labour m arket outcomes is only available since Figure 9 com pares. It clearly shows tha t more. After five years o f. The quicker conv ergence is particularly striking for.
However, the origin-country composition of the two. It thus seems that th e more favourable labou r market conditions have. As will be discussed in m ore detail below, there is some evidence.
Since figures on labour m arket outcomes by permit data are available only for a limited number. Important will be in this c ontext whether or.
A volatile economy and very large income disparities create pressing needs for more effective social and labour-market policies. Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries; OECD a, OECD Reviews of Labour Market and Social Policies: Chile; OECD b.
Indeed, the picture of past cohorts has be en that the convergence process is relativ ely quick in the. Blom ; Brekke and Mastekaasa The observation of a halt in convergence after the first few. Evolution of the employment-populatio n ratios for the and cohorts, by migration motive. Labour Family Refugees Total. Labour Family Refugees Tota l. Longva and Raaum studied the earn i ngs as similation of immigrants in Norway. Immigrants from non- OECD countries earn considerably less than the. Although their relative ea rnings improve gradually over time, th e.
The impact of economic c onditions on the labour market outco mes of immigrants. The national economic situati on is one of the most im portant factors in shaping the labour m arket. This is particularly apparent regarding unemployment. Tak ing the national definition of. The ratio o f unemployment rates ha s remained remarkably constant over the. Such employment tends to be mo re affected by the econom ic situation. Likewise, immigrants — in particular immig rant men — are more often employed in cy clically-sensitive. Nevertheless, in the first months of there has been a strong in crease in unemployment.
NAV , full unemploym e nt had increased to 2. Immigrants from the new EU member countries experienced a particularly. At the end of the fi rst quarter , the unemployment rate for this group. The growth in the. Evolution of the unemploy ment rate for native-born and immigrants in Norway,. Unemployment rate of total popul ation. As a reaction to the downturn, a stimulus pack ag e with the overall volume of 20 billion NOK. A significant part i s for public infrastructure. Allocations to the NAV have also been. The current deterioration in labour market cond itions follows a period of unpreceden ted.
This is worrisome, since ev idence from past downturns in other OECD. As a consequence of the economic downturn, the labour m arket entry of the many new arrivals. Em ployers can be more selective at the hiring stage. Evidence from Sweden also suggests that personal or informal networks are more. Past experience from other OECD countries has also shown that the negative. One possible reason for the long-term. Immigrants who have not m anaged to get employed quickly after arrival may be stigmatised in the labour. Sweden provides an example in case see OECD a. It underwent a sev ere crisis in the early.
Lik ewise, in Germany, the. The difference between the em ployment-population ratios of fo reigners and of German nationals almost. In the Netherlands, the sev ere ec onomic. The extent t o which such a long-lasting imp act of macroeconomic cond itions on arrival also. Norway — young adults — that a downtu rn at the end of formal schooling age 19 is associated with a. They found that t hese migrants were no t only more sensitive to economic cond itions, but that they.
They conclude that imm igrants. They also argu e that the negative. There is also evidence th at the earnings of immigrants exhib i t greater sensit i vity to local. A similar fin ding is. Finally, there is some evidence that the higher sensib ility of immigrants to economic conditions.
For exam ple, Brekke a finds that children of. Self-employmen t of immigrants. A first look at s elf-employment shows that its incidence is small in int ernational comparison,.
Although there are som e differences by country-. Share of self-employ m ent among the tota l employment of foreign-born and native-born. Share of self-employment among the employed foreign-born and n a tive-born aged , Norway. Register data fourth quarter New EU countries in Eastern Europe 3.
North America and Oceania 8. South and Central America 4. In the Norwegian Register data, Asia. Evidence from a number of OECD countries sug gests that self-employment is one way of. Clark and Drinkwater ; Blume et al. In contrast, considerab le attention has been paid in recent y ears towards raising entr epreneurship.
For example, IMD i has recently. These last for weeks, with an individual. Likewise, in th e municipality of Drammen, a train ing and knowledge.
The centre provides training. All courses are fre e and take place in the evening to. The centre was set up as part. This facilitated access to finan cial credit for promising. In addition, in co-operation with the Confed eration of Norweg ian Enterprises, a project. As part of th e introduction programme, they can plan, establis h and run a. During this process, contact is being estab lished. The aim of the. At the sam e time, they can get in contact with lo cal business and industry, as well as wi th public.
It is not clear to which these rather sm all-scale activities hav e contributed to raising self-. In any case, imm igrants have been overrepresented among recent new. Indeed, for the few years for which data on surviv al of new personal-owned companies is. H owever, there is also some tentativ e. This is an indication that the self- employment of immigrants is. Self-employment of immigrants in Norway is concentrated in some econom ic sectors, and this. Characteristics of the Norwegian labour market and links with in tegration. Much of the public debate in Norway has been concerned with the impact of the tax and benefit.
Indeed, the ov erall tax level is high, and Norway has a. F or nearly all family types and income si tuations, net replacem ent rates in Norway. They are particularly hi gh in international comparison for households with. After five years out-of-work,.
This is a group in whic h immigrant households from non -OECD countries. Unemployment traps arising from high net repla cem ent rates thus seem to be a problem, but there. They find t hat. The impact of fam ily structure that is, the marital status and the num ber of children on. One possible explanation for th is. An important issue is whether o r not immigrants a ssimilate rather into or out of welfare.
However, it seems that over. Morocco, Turkey and Pakistan F igure Nevertheless, it is important to stress that em ployment remains. Composition of total income in Nor w ay, native-born and various immigrant groups,.
Child-related benefits include maternity grant s, child allowances and cash-for-care. Statistics Norway Income Statist ics. The low-skilled employment se ctor. As has been seen above, whereas the labour market outcomes of highly -qualified immigrants in. Norway do not seem to be unfavour able in international comparison, this do es not appear to be case f or. As alre ady mentioned, there are. For an in-depth study in international comparison, see Duell, Singh and Tergeist This notably concerns the supply of low-sk illed jobs, which seems to be more limited in Norway.
Norway is the c ountry in the comparison group with the lowest share of. The limited number of low-skilled jobs. Note, howeve r, that the sim ilarly high wage compression in. Denmark has apparently not prevented a relatively high number of low-skilled jobs. Low-skilled employ ment as a percentage of total employment, selected OECD countries,. Linked with the limited importance of low -skilled employm ent is also the observation that this. A third possible explanation relates to th e fact that low-qualified immigrants may have a lower.
Again, there is some. There are two possible policy options to. There have recently been some modest efforts to ra ise the basic skills of immigrants. Euros h ave been. The poor labour market outcomes of lo w-qualified immigrants in Norway. The comparison of education levels between immigrants and the native-born is hampered by the fa ct that. Result s from IALS show a discount of tertiary qualifi cations. Programme for International S tudent Assessment indicate that there are alrea dy large differences in the performance.
In addition, as i s suggested above by T able 7, low-educated imm igrants often do. Data from the IALS give an indication of the magnitude of the litera cy skills differences. Differences in the mean literacy scores between low-qualified native- and foreign-born,. Although these results have to be int erpreted with some caution due to the sm all sample sizes in the IALS for low-educ ated.
Controlling for age, sex and year effects, low-educated. Controlling in addition for the literacy score reduces the difference by more than half and turns it insignific ant. International Adult Literacy Survey In summary, the unfavourable labour m arket position of low-qualified immigrants seems to be.
While it is diff icult. In addition, by employing immigrants, the public administration a cts as a role model for the. If in fact im migrants find employment in the public administrat ion, this can also increase th e. Finally, employment of im migrants in the public se ctor can contribute. The m ost direct influence which the central g overnment exerts is clearly in its ow n. Accord ing to national statistics, Immigrants, in parti cular those from non-OECD c ountries, are underr epresented in the state sector —.
Using intern ationally comparable. By and large, the overall presence of im migrants in the public administration in. Norway thus seems to be above the level observed in other OEC D countries, with the exception of. Employment of foreign-born in the public administration in selected OECD countries,. The labour f orce survey data f or the public admi nistration inclu des education. T he register-ba sed data refer t o state sector. March Supplement for the United States. Relative to share among native-born employment right scale.
Olsen investigated the participation of immigrants in the pub lic administration with. He finds that althoug h immigrants are underrepresented in the public adminis t ration, this is. I mmigrants are quite often employed in these highly- skilled jobs — they account. Indeed, immigrants with four years o f. Indeed, for many years, Norway has had an ac tive policy to recruit persons with an imm igrant. Special attention ha s been paid to qualified and highly- qualified.
A number of measures have recently been taken to further enhance the integratio n of immigrants. Since , all state agencies are oblig ed to set. I n addition, hiring managers receiv e training in diversity management. I f candidates have equal or. Many hi ring managers seem to be sceptical abou t the. However, they also claim that the measure has encourag ed them to pay more. Again, immigrants a r e. Notably the la rger cities seem to have been rather active. The City of Oslo establi shed an action. City of Drammen, for e xample, has set similar targets and als o obliged its agencies and services to provide.
In all job vacancies,. In addition, as in the state sector, hiring managers are. Hiring managers als o receive special train ing in. Nevertheless, as mentioned above, the picture is slightly distorted because of. Oslo was in the social and health services. The state and municipal se ctor accounted for more than half of this f igure. The third part of the labour mark et over which the public authorities exert some direc t control are. Th e government influences the management of these companies notab l y regarding.
Compared with the inform ation on employment in the. However, s ince , IMDi publishes an annual report on th e recruitment and. The most recent report shows a slig ht increase in employment of imm i grants and their chil dren in these. There has bee n some targeted action to encourage applications of imm igrants and their. I n the In summary, the large public sect or has taken consider able efforts on all levels to promote. The labour market integration of immigrant women. As seen above, im migrant women, in particular from non-OECD.
According to registe r data, their employment level reach es. These results hav e to be seen in the context that most immigrant women did not come primarily. They g enerally joined their spouses w ho were often already working and, at least initially,. In addition, immig r ant women often come fr om countries where the employment of wom en is. It may therefor e seem overly ambitious to expect that they reach. Galloway sho ws that there are indeed. Women from non-OECD countries gener ally have very low employment levels shortly afte r arrival.
Whereas women from countries such as Vie tnam and Sr i Lanka converge towards the em ployment rates of. Wom en from these. Young married Norweg ian women with children have slightly lower. The differ ences between those. Interesting ly, on the basis of these descrip tive aggregate statistics,. I t is the presence of. Table 11 also indicates that even though the differences vis-. In additio n, although the differences are. Difference with non - OECD 2nd generation. Difference with non - OECD immigrant women. Total Marr ied with childre n Married without childr en Single without children.
The second and third row show the differences in employment rates between the nati ve Norwegian women and the native-born. The diff erences refer to the native-born female children of immigrant s and. Rows four to eight show for eac h. As a measure to support families who w ish to take care of their children a t home, a so-called.
It covers since Janu ary all children aged between. In fact, social policy is focused on the elderly and disabled, and in recent years there have been significant increases in transfer payments to pensioners. Rapid population ageing further contributes to the need to address the low standard pensionable ages at which pensions become payable in Russia and limit access to early pensions. The challenge for Russia will be to rebalance its social policy towards more effective support for the working age population and help parents to combine work and family life more effectively.
Russia has high poverty rates and a wide income distribution compared to most OECD countries. Countries are ranked in increasing order of the Gini coefficient of income inequality. Jenkins 66 Reforming Retirement-Income Systems: Who Bears the Burden? Mobility or Immobility Across Generations? A Benefit or Work Strategy? By citations By downloads last 12 months. Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors.
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