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Ebook gratis italiano download cellulari HostPapa Basics: Free english e books download Giving Away Success: Download free pdf books for nook Where Frogs Live: Free mp3 downloads ebooks Trapped on the Rock: Can Science Save Your Life? Online free download ebooks pdf Sudoku Volume An evaluation of the General Aircraft Hotspur found it to lack the necessary size, thus Specification X.
It was from this specification that Airspeed Limited designed the Horsa, a large glider capable of accommodating up to 30 fully equipped paratroopers, which was designated as the AS Large numbers of Horsa were subsequently used during the opening stages of the Battle of Normandy , being used in the British Operation Tonga and American operations.
In the early stages of the Second World War , the German military demonstrated its role as a pioneer in the deployment of airborne operations. These forces had conducted several successful operations during the Battle of France in , including the use of glider-borne troops during the Battle of Fort Eben-Emael. While the equipment for the airborne forces was under development, it was decided by War Office officials that gliders would be an integral component of such a force.
It was initially thought that gliders would be used to deliver paratroops. Transport aircraft would both carry paratroops and tow a glider with a second party of troops.
The idea arose as a response to the severe shortage of transport aircraft in the early part of the war, as in this way the number of troops that could be dropped in an operation by a given number of transport aircraft would be greatly enhanced. The empty gliders would be towed back to base. However, thinking eventually evolved into using gliders to land both troops and heavy equipment in the theatre of operations.
Tactically, it was believed that airborne troops should be landed in groups far larger than the maximum of eight fully equipped paratroopers that the Hotspur could transport, and also that the number of aircraft required to tow the gliders needed to carry larger groups would be impractical. There were also concerns that the gliders would have to be towed in tandem if used operationally, which would be extremely difficult during nighttime and through cloud formations.
Accordingly, it was decided that the Hotspur would be used only as a training glider. Airspeed assembled a design team, headed by aircraft designer Hessell Tiltman. The widely set doors enabled simultaneous egress to be conducted, as well as for troops on board to fire upon nearby hostiles from within the glider; for the latter purpose, they were also provisioned with several purpose-built firing points located in the roof and tail.
In February , an initial order was placed for of the gliders; it was estimated that Airspeed should be able to complete the order by July The concept of towing bombs was dropped as other bombers became available, resulting in the order for the AS 52 being cancelled.
In early , production of the Horsa commenced; by May , some 2, had been ordered by the Army for use in future airborne operations. Tiltman said that the Horsa "went from the drawing board to the air in ten months, which was not too bad considering the drawings had to be made suitable for the furniture trade who were responsible for all production. The initial gliders were manufactured at Airspeed's factory in Christchurch , Hampshire;  production of the remainder was performed by an assortment of subcontractors.
The Horsa Mk II had been specifically designed for the carriage of vehicles, featuring a reinforced floor and a hinged nose section in order to accommodate such use.
As a consequence of the majority of subcontractors not having available airfields from which to deliver the gliders, they sent the sub-assemblies to RAF Maintenance Units MUs , who would perform final assembly themselves; this process has been attributed as being responsible for the widely varying production numbers recorded of the type. Even the controls in the cockpit were masterpieces of the woodworker's skill".
It was considered to be sturdy and very manoeuvrable for a glider. The design of the Horsa adopted a high-wing cantilever monoplane configuration, being equipped with wooden wings and a wooden semi- monocoque fuselage.
British Pathe period footage of Horsa gliders in action. In February , an initial order was placed for of the gliders; it was estimated that Airspeed should be able to complete the order by July Airfix magazine , Volume 18, No. Manion, Milton June The widely set doors enabled simultaneous egress to be conducted, as well as for troops on board to fire upon nearby hostiles from within the glider; for the latter purpose, they were also provisioned with several purpose-built firing points located in the roof and tail.
The fuselage was built in three sections bolted together, the front section held the pilot's compartment and main freight loading door, the middle section was accommodation for troops or freight, the rear section supported the tail unit. The fuselage joint at the rear end of the main section could be broken on landing to facilitate the rapid unloading of troops and equipment, for which ramps were provided.
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But this was thought to be hazardous, especially if detonated prematurely by enemy fire. The wing carried large "barn door" flaps which, when lowered, made a steep, high rate-of-descent landing possible--this performance would allow the pilots to land in constricted spaces. On operational flights, the main gear could be jettisoned and landing was then made on the castoring nose wheel and a sprung skid set on the underside of the fuselage.
The pilot's compartment had two side-by-side seats and dual controls, all of which being contained within a large Plexiglas nose section. But having to put a review is annoying.
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